A subspecialty of medicine called oncology deals with the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. A physician with expertise in oncology is known as an oncologist.. Three key factors have contributed to the increase in cancer survival rates: better screening for various cancers, better prevention efforts to minimise exposure to risk factors, and better treatment.

The Field Of Oncology Has Three Main Divisions:

Medical Oncology

Your cancer will be treated by a medical oncologist using chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.


An operating room doctor with specialised training in doing biopsies and other surgical operations on cancer patients.


A multidisciplinary approach to treating cancer must include the medical specialty of radiation oncology.

Risk Factors:


The main factor causing cancer and cancer-related deaths is tobacco exposure. The chance of developing malignancies of the lung, larynx, mouth, oesophagus, throat, brain, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach, pancreas, colon, rectum, cervix, and acute myeloid leukemia is significantly enhanced by smoking tobacco. Pancreatic, oral, and esophageal cancers are all at elevated risk while using smokeless tobacco.


Drinking alcohol raises the risk of developing malignancies of the mouth, throat, oesophagus, larynx, liver, and breast. Alcohol and tobacco usage both greatly increase the risk of developing cancer.


People who are obese are more likely to get cancers of the kidney, pancreas, rectum, oesophagus, breast, colon, and gallbladder.


Being older increases your risk of developing various cancers. The average age at which a cancer diagnosis is made is 66.

Cancer-Causing Agents:

Gene alterations that affect how our cells function are what lead to cancer. Some of them are the result of DNA damage caused by the environment. These exposures could be to chemicals like those in cigarette smoke or to radiation like the sun’s UV rays and other carcinogens.

Infectious Agents :

Oncoviruses, germs, and parasites are a few infectious organisms that can cause cancer.


It is well recognized that the immune system contributes to the body’s defense against cancer, in part because immunosuppressed individuals have a significantly higher occurrence of various malignancies.

Oncopathology Specialities

  • Surgical Oncology.
  • Medical Oncology.
  • Radiation Oncology.
  • Pediatric Oncology.
  • Preventive Oncology

Oncopathology University

Yenepoya Medical College

The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

Australian National University

Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology

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